Most basements, by the sheer nature of the fact that they are built into the ground, present the possibility that water can intrude, turning what was once a dry basement into a wet basement. This is because water in the soil can put constant pressure on basement walls. Plus, water follows the path of least resistance inside a home and over time can find its way into a basement. It's important when buying a house with a basement to check for signs of dampness in the basement. It's better to find out before you buy than afterwards, especially since you can't rely on seller discloser. Why can't you rely on seller disclosures? Because the sellers might not know about it. If the sellers did have knowledge, however, and failed to disclose the water problems in a basement, it could be:
- Difficult to prove in court
- Take years to get into court
- Expensive to sue
- Very expensive to dry out the basement
Signs of a Damp or Wet Basement:
- Water stains along walls or floor. This could be caused by something simple such as an overflowing laundry tub or it could be a result of water seeping in through basement windows, the walls or the floor.
- Musty odor or damp smell. Excess moisture in a basement can cause an unmistakable smell.
- Mold It could be colored black, brown, yellow or green, and you won't know for certain if it's mold without testing it. Often the northwest corner of a house is known as a "cold corner" and susceptible to developing mold.
- Efflorescence This condition produces a white or Efflorescence sometimes grayish ash on the walls. Sometimes it sparkles. Efflorescence is caused by salt deposits left behind by evaporating water.
- Spalling When water gets inside the surface of concrete, brick or stone, salt deposits from the water cause the surface to flake away, peel or pop off.
Potential Causes of a Wet Basement:
- Ground water. Water can seep through floors and foundations due to freakish heavy rain or seasonal run-off, or it could be constant water seepage.
- Overflowing gutters. Gutters can overflow because of:
- Excessive rainfall.
- Clogging from leaves or debris.
- Improper installation, for example, draining from the second-floor gutters into the first-floor gutters.
- Sudden thaw from frozen gutters.
- Not enough gutters. Sometimes homeowners install gutters in one or two locations but not all the way around the house.
- Downspouts. Water problems can be caused by disconnected downspouts or downspouts that aren't long enough to direct water away from the house.
- Improper landscaping or grading. This causes water to flow toward the house instead of away from the house.
- Sprinklers. If sprinklers are aimed toward the house, too much water will accumulate at the foot of the foundation and /or leak through the foundation.
- Condensation from pipes. Often, in high humidity areas, pipes will form condensation and drip, especially from air conditioner units without a release valve.
- Water leaks inside the walls. If the interior walls lead directly from the attic to the basement, it can provide a direct channel for water from the roof to seep inside the house.
Possible Solutions & Options to Dry Out / Fix a Wet Basement:
- Redirect the source of water. While this sounds simple, it's often overlooked:
- Reconnect disconnected downspouts.
- Redirect second-floor gutters to separate downspouts.
- Increase downspout efficiencies by attaching extensions designed to move water downhill.
- Turn sprinklers away from the house.
- Clean out the gutters.
- Install flashing on the roof and under window sills.
- Re grade the landscaping to slope away from the house.
- Install French Drains, either under the slab or around the house.
- Install a dehumidifier in the basement.
- Install a sump pump in the basement, which will pump the water to the street or at least 20 feet away from the foundation.
- Tuck point the exterior and interior walls.
- Clean out old mortar and cracks.
- Install a floor drain.Insulate the walls.
- Waterproofing by painting a sealer on the interior walls doesn't really help much if water is putting pressure on the walls. It will eventually leak through.
In closing, don't store valuables, photographs, paper documents or anything you care to preserve in a wet basement. Moreover, get an expert's opinion, including an engineer's report, if you can, before you buy a house with a wet basement. It might not be worth the hassle.